Gender and Politics Review

In domestic and international levels on the state level, the issue of security is important and crucial issues, which all countries in the world trying to maintain the security of the region and improve their security capabilities. However, there is no doubt that community participation at the individual level, state, and the international system, dominated by men, while women only as a supporter and are rarely involved in the position and important roles. In connection with national security issues, most of the realists thinking skeptical about achieving a perfect safety by a state. According to them, a country must be able to rely on their own military capabilities, and the best contribution given by the study of international relations to the national security is the ability to investigate the causes of war and capable of producing policies that can minimize the creation of the war. In battle, how much power that a country both in the field of human resources (skills troops), completeness of weapons, and military budgets, it is very influential to the success of the war. Seeing this phenomenon, Kenneth Waltz predicted that countries with the greatest strength will be the country's most successful because of the strength / power they have to be pressure for the opponent to feel pressured. Since the time of Morgenthau, no mention that women took part in this problem. Because at that time, men dominated the work in the scope of 'public'.

In terms Morgenthau "political man", people competing for each others dominant position as well as 'power', the basis used is the masculine behaviors that become 'first-class society'. History also states, since the Roman era, the party will gain a respectable position and concerns as citizens are those who have proven themselves as heroes who through heroic action and sacrifice in the war. Examination of the challenges that real masculinity or so-called "arete" is to win the battle. Greek city-state is a community of warriors, while women and slaves at the level of "need" in the household or economic areas that are not included as citizens because it will pollute at a higher level in politics. And at times, the military is not a woman's field. Although currently many women who penetrated into the military field, but the ability as well as man's existence is not recognized properly. The behavior of any country, emphasized the importance of masculine behavior. For example in decision-making, where necessary decisiveness, accuracy, rationality, and courage and great responsibility, where all these things are aspects that are usually owned by men. While women more commonly known as a gentle person, patient, and loving, where that aspect is less necessary in the political world. Nicollo Machiavelli also seemed 'agrees' previous statements about the condition of women who are considered weak and it is regarded as the threat of citizen-warrior masculinity.

In wartime, it can be said that the state itself becomes a citizen-warrior, where the military leadership aimed at the enemy as an individual. Neorealism describes the country in a different way, as an abstract unit whose actions can be explained by laws that can be universalized beyond place and time and internal characteristics are not relevant to the implementation of the law itself. In fact, neorealist picture of the state as a unitary actor faced with the reality on the history of the customs system of Western countries: characterization neorealist on state behavior, in terms of self-help, autonomy, and search powers special characteristics associated with the construction of Western masculinity. When we think about the attitude of the state in national security, we entered the world of policy that is almost exclusively dominated by men.

If we talk about war, certainly not far away with the word anarchy. Thomas Hobbes describes anarchy in the international system, in which Hobbes connects war committed by every human being against another human being, into the conduct of States in an international system. Although Hobbes explains that women and men both have the same individual freedom, an explanation of human behavior in the environment is addressed to men whose behavior is considered as part of human nature as a whole. Just as Hobbes, Machiavelli seems to have the same opinion about the war. According to him, war is one of the main ways to study international relations. Historical experience is an experience in international politics experienced by a State. We learn that there is a significant change in an international system, after the great war when relations of power of a State is changing. The war is a point where the characteristics of men and women become polarized in the military and masculinity. Responding to this, Jean Elshtain states that in a war, women often become the victims, and rarely become a part of the war itself. The war is a point where she can prove his role in a country, that woman can do man's work in this case engaged in warfare. But the reality on the ground does not happen like that, it is often trivialized and abused women in war. In military life, women can be said to be very susceptible to sexual abuse such as rape but it also provides evidence that families with military members, therein violence often occurs particularly in women. Although the public often violence occurred between the men, but women more often feel unsafe in public area. Not only that, women often overlooked when giving an opinion or write about national security. In the Woman's International Peace Conference in Canada in 1985, the participants define security in a variety of things depending on the threat at hand. Safety in the workplace, safety in the war, and various other things.

In international relations, the decline in the role of women is closely linked to the myth that women need protection and placing women as victims, their views on how large the contribution of the protector / protected against the military produce gender inequalities that can lead to violence against women. Some feminists claim that the role of citizens should not only be seen from its role in the military but also the role of women in society. One view relating to women and peace, the women support the men in battle. The fact is that in general women have always supported the war and national security policy. When women are expected to support the men in the war, many of them are hesitant to go to war, they more often gave the job to the man. The feminists are themselves divided into two for this issue, some argue that women must take part in the war, but some say that women must reject the politics of war for the sake of promoting peace. Judith Stiehm suggests that the increased role of women in the military can be the beginning of a new concept of citizen-defender of the warrior-patriot. When viewed more information about the role of women, actually women can be considered an important role in informal negotiations. It is inevitable that the actual negotiations to reach a negotiated agreement is an informal, conducted over dinner at one of the diplomats, for example. Where is the wife of the diplomat is the main factor that makes the atmosphere of these negotiations to be friendly and trustworthy. The conclusion was that women are often underestimated but their role in creating confidence in the world of men is enormous.
In international relations disciplines, it can be said that all the learning of gender issues in global security, defined without any element of feminism in it. Although the definition of masculinity or that feminism is a widespread and varied in every culture or race, theories HI and their analysis about the world, giving special privileges that developed following the hegemonic masculinity is socially constructed. Maturity development efforts in international relations the countries in the world and then opened up opportunities to create alternative perspectives that have been stripped of elements and all forms of relationship with masculinity. This is intended for important roles in the country not only held by men and to end gender inequality that were previously very pronounced. However, feminist perspectives in national security, international political economy, and ecology (although offering different assumptions) show indications that they bring a new perspective that both makes sense and it is not impossible to be realized. In a feminist perspective, to strengthen national security no longer required security approach that gave priority to autonomy or separation, but instead worked hard to strengthen the sense of belonging and togetherness as a part of human instinct which will eventually create communities (community). The assumption that the existence of mutual dependence as one of human nature allows us to see that community building is another dimension of the behavior of the international system, not an aberration. Then the feminist perspective offers a new idea about the country's defense that does not just pay attention to domestic matters only. By creating a good relationship between fellow members of the community then the relationship will still be awake, and minimize the possibility of attack by other countries. Feminists are also provided to the Marxist critique to emphasize the role of women in the production and reproduction of their households and their livelihood on subsistence. They also emphasize that fact, the exploitation of women as unpaid workers who are crucial in the expansion of the capitalist world economy.
Although women have a lot to prove their existence, they can not align themselves with the position and the role earned him. That is because most of them only engaged in 'periphery', and the demand to replace their characteristics as a woman with male characteristics. The main goal of feminism is to overcome the marginalization of women from power's institutions, social movements, and economic production. Due to the weak position of women and are in the bottom line, then feminists must have critical stance and strong about their ability to participate and play a role in global security issues such as militarism, poverty, and environment. The perception and stigma that had been embedded in the international community, need to be replaced with disciplines and views that also involve the feminist perspective. So in the end women are also regarded as 'human', not just a complement, the exterior, or just the need for the masculine only.

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