Perbandingan Politik : ARTIKULASI KEPENTINGAN (Articulation of Interests)

Articulation of interests is a group of people who voice the interests, demands, and demands required by individuals or groups. In practice, a group or party may request assistance from other interest groups for the demands and desires they can influence policy.

One part of the articulation of interests is the role and actions of the people in it. The forms of political participation is divided into two, namely "conventional" and "non-conventional". Political activity "conventional" is a form of political participation 'normal' in modern democracies, such as voting, political discussion, campaign activities, establish and participate in interest groups, individual communications with government officials. While "non-conventional" including some that may be legal (petition) as well as the illegal, violent, and revolutionary, such as filing of petitions, demonstrations, confrontations, strikes, acts of political violence against property and people, guerrilla warfare, and revolution. A large number of public participation depends on what political activities they follow. Probably the most political activity requires a large amount of public participation is the election, in which every citizen who has lived in over 17 years is entitled to vote directly for the leader of the community.

Articulation of interests made by a group of people or the interest groups are organized based on membership, ethnicity, race, ethnicity, religion, profession, and others. various types of interest groups including the anomic group which is a group that gathered by accident with the same interests. The second is non-associational groups who have a common identity but rarely organized, can form a family group, descent, ethnic, and other. Then there is the so-called associational groups including labor unions, chambers of commerce, associations of businessmen and industrialists, where they employ professional staff who work full and has a regular procedure for formulating the interests and demands. And the last is the institutional group where these groups tend to be more formal and have the power of social and political functions.

In communicating the political demands, individuals or groups usually do not just want to just give information but they also try to make their views understood by the leaders who make decisions and get good responses. Therefore they are trying to find specific channels to channel their demands through demonstrations, personal relationships with influential people, communication through one of his representatives in the legislature or the bureaucracy are active in decision making, can also through political parties, mass media, and conduct lobbying with parliamentarians and provide information on the face of a parliamentary commission. There are significant differences between legitimacy and constitutional access channels (such as mass media, party and government) access channels of non-legitimate or coercive. And the thing that sets it apart is the strategy used to be able to influence the existing political elites. The strategy used can with the money, especially for groups who have a strong status and position so that they can easily get a job through access to constitutional legitimacy. Whereas those who have limitations, things they can do is to access non-legitimate channels that can trigger coercive measures.

In its development, there are six types of political structure that is political parties, interest groups, legislative, executive, bureaucracy, and Courts. Actually, the sixth of this type can not bring us further about the political system compare with one another because not all countries have the sixth of this type and have the same way in its application.

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